Yet important transformations had to take place for this to be possible, and not just with industry and among artisans. During the 17th c. Yet it was impossible to heat homes with coal without completely transforming how they were built. The use of coal required them to be equipped with a chimney which was not the case before that period , a stone wall to support it, a firebox lined with metal that could accommodate a fire with sufficient draft, etc.
The book Power to the People, by Astrid Kander, Paolo Malanima, and Paul Warde, three European historians who have greatly contributed to this field of research in their previous publications, appeared in They present their work as a history of the European economy seen through the question of energy.
Essays/Prose Narratives From 100 POCKETS
They briefly discuss the various theories that have succeeded one another to explain why the Industrial Revolution initially took place in England arguments that are economic and energy-based but also institutional, cultural, etc. Animadverting upon the "disturbing disaffection for methodological reflection" in French linguistic circles p.
While any new methodology that challenges the status quo of a discipline generates theoretical debate, structuralism does so in a radical manner by virtue of its own internal logic. This point implicitly accounts for the project of the article itself even as it announces what will be a constant of the structuralist adventure. Greimas's "Saussurism" 1 Sign and language. Greimas argues that the concepts of language langue and sign proposed in the CLG allow linguistics to define itself as a powerful and focused scientific project.
In harmony with the phenomenology of Husserl and Merleau-Ponty, Saussurean linguistics thus conceived overcomes the dichotomy of thought and word that has paralyzed French psychology and threatened to desiccate the modern science of language. Moreover, as Hjelmslev demonstrates in his Prolegomena , this fundamental Saussurean insight is transferable to other disciplines, transforming the linguistic concepts into general epistemological principles and pointing to a unified science of the social. Hjelmslev , [Fr. The article asserts attributes and scientific results of Saussure's language, and the scope of its application, rather than specifying the kinds of relations posited, or the modes of research and study implied.
Saussure's concepts of difference, value, and of the "mechanism" of language wed his conception of language to that of the sign, for the relational and semanticized conception of the latter as a function comprising signifier and signified goes hand and hand with the similarly Janus language langue conceived as a network of relations charged with meaning.
The structures of signifiers and signifieds in a language replace the notion that the mind thinks with disembodied ideas or concepts, then translates them into the values and forms of language when externalizing them cf. Bally and Sechehaye , The Saussurean perspective parallels Merleau-Ponty's crucial concept of language as an extension of the body through action , ch. In banning reference to states in the world, the Saussurean postulate of structures of signifiers and signifieds runs counter to traditional "triangles of meaning" from Aristotle to I.
Richards, in which a linguistic symbol designates an object in the world, via mediating referential concepts. While incorporating the heritage of French sociology cf. Doroszewski , Saussurism goes beyond Durkheim by integrating into a global purview the kinds of relations and processes often segregated and devalued by such labels as 'prelogical' or 'unconscious' cf. Boas , on "primitive" [vs.
Introduction : Inner Voices and Representation of Inner Spaces
The Port-Royal grammar, by ignoring the formation of words, lexicology, and historical semantics, simply obviates much of the "pathological" functioning of language. A science which takes as its object the integral functioning of language studies the manifold forms of discourse, without deleting or valorizing different kinds of structures, deemed alien, infantile, or primitive. The lexicology works with vocabulary items, explicitly considered as purely semantic units, defined by the things, values, and activities of a society.
La mode en thus speaks of "signs" of language and "signifieds" of the social world , and emphasizes that the external form of the word is irrelevant to a semantic study such as lexicology. A Saussurean approach calls for taking the semantic units as linked to the signifier structures, and tied up with linguistic structures at different levels cf.
Note that the importance granted to substituting language and other signifying ensembles in the place of a psychology of ideas implies that the description of linguistic structures alters the character of the semantics aimed at, in ways that may not yet be explicit in the general article, and indeed in ways that Greimas may only glimpse in In the absence of such a contrast in descriptive practices, one could simply rename the earlier psychology "language," and the much-heralded epistemological shift would become a terminological switch. The question becomes critical when in semiotics la langue 'language' gives way to le langage 'the language faculty,' near synonym of mind.
Adopting Hjelmslev's theoretical extension of Saussurism to the status of an epistemology, Greimas uses language langue and speaking parole as general scientific terms p. The concept of Saussurean language enables the sociologist to construct facts, deeds, and events in society as moments in social structures. This move positions time and change within structures themselves--for any mode of production remains historically bound and subject to profound transformations--and reintegrates into the structuralist purview non-verbal behavior and the environment, which remain bracketed in the CLG , as in the Geneva school Bally, Sechehaye.
Saussure's langue is translated into a sociology that embraces cultural symbolisms, administrative and organizational hierarchies, economic production, distribution, and consumption, along with other institutions family, profession, ethnic group. Rejecting the exclusion of history cf. Benveniste and von Wartburg as well. This historicity acts both as structural tendencies within language langue , and as the dynamism within speaking parole , or praxis , in Merleau-Ponty's formulation p. The article thus isolates and separates two of the major contrasts between philology and structural linguistics: positivistic vs structural, and historical vs synchronic, selecting one term from each category in its hybrid project that proposes to move forward forging past and present.
The components of language receiving closest scrutiny in linguistics remain the phonological and morpho-syntactic structures which underpin communication. When viewed as relational and semanticized, morpho-syntactic categories e. In principle, then, one can apply structural methods to the description of culture as it appears throughout the signifiers and signifieds of language. If phonologists and syntacticians manifest resistance to the notion of such an extension of structuralism, other disciplines such as history vocally recognize the necessity of taking account of language in their research, as does Marc Bloch in his research on medieval social structures , or Lucien Febvre in his study of disbelief in the Sixteenth Century A social, historical, and structural semantics could offer other human sciences valuable cooperation.
Devised as a methodology and not as a separate discipline, the lexicological project can assert its worth as catalyst and guide in elaborating a common language in the interdisciplinary study of societies. Popular oral narratives, religion, and literature use language, considered a system of signs, to construct orders of thought which mediate between the signs of language and techniques, or work. Following Hjelmslev, Greimas terms such ensembles "metalanguages" Hjelmslev , ch. The "metalanguages" thus envisioned parallel Soviet "secondary modeling systems" and announce Foucault's studies of language and power structures Lucid ed.
Toward semiology. Their descriptions and methodological proposals set up an integration of theoretical and philosophical formulations by Hjelmslev and Merleau-Ponty into the fundamental assumptions of a semiology. For while Hjelmslev advances the epistemological and methodological model of semiology "semiotics," etc.
As a result, whereas Hjelmslev's linguistic "form" is a hierarchy of presuppositional relations among signs found in texts, Greimas's language becomes a world view and the medium of action. Topical issues Beyond its programmatic propositions, the text entails a topical dimension related to the "linguistic wars" of the day and to the intellectual evolution of the author. Greimas admits going through a professional mid-life crisis, having found himself in the peculiar situation that whereas eminent philologists who were master-thinkers of his university training disparage the esotericism of the Saussurean Prague and Danish schools, outside linguistics the CLG is celebrated as a revolutionary work by the most challenging and innovative thinkers in the human and social sciences.
Embracing key structuralist tenets while placing great emphasis on a genuine historical program splits the difference between the two chief global factions, historical and structuralist, offering a "big tent" under which both can gather, and thus stave off a schism. Published in an established philological journal by a trained philologist, the article could reasonably hope to attract fellow traditional linguists willing or eager to update their approach, but loath to jettison history. Highly-respected in numerous currents in linguistics, including both historical and structural, the Genevan Neogrammarian offered a strategic vehicle for Greimas's hybrid endeavor, and 'Saussurism' likely gave a less unpalatable ring than 'structuralism' to philologists.
Ultimately, the wider audience for the article proved to be scholars in other fields, from philosophy to anthropology, from sociology to fine arts, who took an interest in structuralism and its linguistic bases. Totalities, change, and heterogeneity 1 History, praxis, and speaking. Once the panorama of potential applications is completed, however, speaking reappears in the guise of individuality, creativity, and marginality that vitalize an endeavor such as literature, whereupon it assumes a place alongside and in tension with the totalizing social perspective associated with language p.
Finally, in the concluding discussion of history, speaking and praxis take on the status of structural principles in the global economy of a semiology Thus, initially banned in order to found a science of langue , speaking returns at the end of the article as a necessary condition of science. Given the double-voiced nature of her poetry, it is more productive to see the two traditions posited by Mellor as coexisting in one body of work.
Such forthright resistance is harder to come by in the poetry of her contemporary, Amable Tastu. Completely forgotten since the end of the nineteenth century, Tastu was highly regarded in the period for her poetry and her educational prose.
In this dialogue between a guardian angel and a woman at different stages of her life, from girlhood to old age, the woman expresses her desire to write poetry, but is recalled to her quotidian duties by the angel:. A mes regrets ravis que la nature est belle!
Introduction : Inner Voices and Representation of Inner Spaces – Épistémocritique
To my ravished eyes how beautiful is nature! All that my soul feels, that my eyes encompass Exhales from my mouth in melodious sounds! Where are they running, those rivals with sonorous lutes? By a holy bond gently chained; What would you do with a treacherous hope? Although ultimately the angel of reason is given the last word, the open-ended form challenges prevailing discourses of domesticity. But death is liberty!
- Les hamacs de carton: Une enquête du capitaine Anato en Amazonie française (Série guyanaise) (French Edition);
- Elements of Polymer Science & Engineering: An Introductory Text and Reference for Engineers and Chemists (The Elements of Polymer Science and Engineering).
- L’édition et la distribution du livre aux Etats-Unis : lignes de force - Persée?
After her second collection of poems in , Tastu renounced poetry and turned to more lucrative forms of writing educational books, historical surveys for young readers and translations. Framed within a reception history marked by propriety, it is hard to see the potential for a feminist reading of her poetry.
Coached by her mother, the writer Sophie Gay, Gay published her first collection of poems at the age of Il est un malheur que personne ne plaint, un danger que personne ne craint…. There is a misfortune that no one pities, a danger that no one fears…. As Dorothy Kelly has shown, Girardin critiques the discourse of femininity from within, by resorting frequently to irony and reversal.
- How to Play a Video Game (The Ginger series).
- The Law and Legal Service Plans (Road To Financial Independence Book 1).
- Aspetto che tu venga da me (Italian Edition).
As Cheryl Morgan has recently argued, Girardin was perhaps a flawed poetess from the outset on account of her propensity for laughter.