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Thus, policy to build agricultural resilience in the face of climate change and its impacts should integrate an understanding of gender differences in capacity, needs, and priorities, to ensure successful implementation of adaptation actions. Since , governments and development organizations have moved forward on developing guidelines, frameworks, and modules to guide gender mainstreaming in policies, development strategies, and programs Parpart After close to three decades of using gender mainstreaming as a means of attaining gender equality, feminists, scholars, and practitioners are involved in debates of whether the strategy has been successful or not Moser and Moser ; Rao and Kelleher These debates have motivated assessments of the effectiveness of gender policies Krizsan and Lombardo and gender mainstreaming in policies, programs, projects, and institutions to ascertain extent of integration and impact of the strategy Waal ; Nhamo The literature shows that policies and practices designed to address and shape mitigation and adaptation strategies to date have largely failed to incorporate gender mainstreaming Dankelman ; Alston , ; Bob and Babugura ; Perez et al.
Failure of policies to make reference to gender, and programs and projects to address gender inequalities have been highlighted as potential constraints to the successful and sustainable implementation of climate change mitigation and adaptation measures Mubila et al.
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Alston has argued that gender mainstreaming is essential to ensure that climate policies and programs are comprehensive, but cautions that the scientific and technological approach of institutional gender mainstreaming responses has often led to a lack of attention to social outcomes in general. Her view is that gender mainstreaming of policy and programs should be complemented by the design of women-targeted policy to ensure that women are supported to act on their own behalf.
The relation of mainstreaming climate and agriculture policies, strategies, or action plans with gender is one evolving approach that is gaining attention IUCN ; Huyer Uganda and Tanzania are among the East African countries that have developed gender mainstreaming strategies, and applied them to integrate gender issues in sectoral policies and programs MCDGC ; Kusambiza Although Nhamo states that most of the newly formulated climate change policies and strategies within the different East African countries have integrated women to some degree, others find that gaps still exist Acosta et al.
Studies from Europe Allwood , the Caribbean Tandon, , and Nigeria Ogunlela and Mukhtar also confirm that some climate change and agricultural policies and strategies are still gender blind. From a global perspective, Otzelberger explains that although most governments have signed international agreements to have gender mainstreamed in their policies, climate change policies and actions have been evolving independently of these agreements, and the national gender policies have remained separate rather than being coherently integrated.
A recent review of inclusion of gender in INDCs and other climate policy instruments such as NAMAs and NAPs see Huyer reinforces this, noting that policy coherence and coordination across ministries is an important step for gender mainstreaming of climate policy at the national level. One response has been the promotion of gender budgeting, based on the assumption that gender mainstreaming in policies requires the allocation of dedicated resources to implement stipulated gender activities within policy and program implementation, and the monitoring of gender results Budlender Gender-responsive budgeting 1 has been increasingly adopted as a tool to support gender mainstreaming in national policies Budlender Since most national climate change initiatives obtain climate change finance from GCF, this has further motivated gender mainstreaming in climate change policies and programs at domestic levels Budlender However, although governments in developing countries have endeavored to formulate gender-responsive budgets, their implementation has been constrained by i lack of technical capacity in gender; ii lack of skills and expertise in planning, monitoring, and evaluation of budgets among those hired to implement GRB initiatives; iii limited or no resources allocated to gender activities; iv inadequate research and gender-disaggregated data; v negative cultural practices; and vi presence of gender-blind sectoral policies especially those that influence local development initiatives Kusambiza ; Nepal Two main dimensions of empowerment have been used to analyze the quality of gender policies: autonomy and authority Ferree and Gamson Authority, which is portrayed through providing decision-making power to the different groups, gives rise to the process analysis school of thought.
On the other hand, the autonomy dimension is the basis for the content analysis school of thought. In the context of climate change and agriculture, and within a content analysis frame, Gumucio and Tafur Rueda developed a rubric to assess the degree to which climate change policies introduced gender issues in seven Latin American countries. The framework consisted of a five-degree grading system that depicts the extent to which gender issues were integrated in the policy document. However, it is worth noting that within the content analysis school of thought, the degree of gender integration in policy documents is not examined, but rather the analysis focuses on the gendered discourses used in the policies see for example MacGregor ; Arora-Jonsson Some analysts propose instead a combination of content and process analysis, since the process of policy formulation affects the content of the policy Krizsan and Lombardo Budlender et al.
The selection of suitable tools depends on availability of data, expertise, and time, although gender-aware appraisal has been the most adopted tool. Budlender developed a five-step approach for carrying out the gender-aware appraisal: i analysis of the situation of women, men, girls, and boys in a given sector; ii assessment of the extent to which policies address the gendered situation; iii assessment as to whether budget allocations are adequate to implement gender-responsive policies; iv assessment of short-term outputs of expenditure, in order to evaluate how resources are actually spent, and policies and programs implemented; and v assessment of the long-term outcomes or impact expenditures might have.
However, most of the gender budget analyses have based their assessment on the expenditure side rather than the revenue side of the budgets Budlender and Hewitt ; Nallari and Griffith ; Combaz ; Budlender This is because the greatest proportion of resources for developing countries are from external resources Budlender and Hewitt , and sources of revenue are also not directly linked with expenditure lines Budlender In this study, we focus on Uganda and Tanzania as two of the East African countries that have in recent years been involved in developing and implementing gender mainstreaming strategies in the agricultural sector.
We limit ourselves to content analysis of policy documents and analyze the degree of gender integration in policies and the associated policy implementation budgets as a component of the policy analysis. Applying a framework developed by Gumuchio and Tafur Rueda , we analyze the degree of gender mainstreaming in agri-food policies and use a modified gender-aware policy appraisal approach by Budlender to analyze gender activities and budgets.
Additionally, policy stakeholder feedback meetings were conducted to allow stakeholders explain policy formulation, budgeting, and budget administration processes. A total of policy documents were reviewed, constituting agricultural, climate change and natural resource policies, development plans, implementation strategies, and action plans that we broadly refer to as agri-food policies.
For Uganda, 27 policy documents, 32 development plans, and 24 action plans were reviewed while for Tanzania, analogous categories included 28, 18, and 13, respectively. Most documents were acquired from partnering government offices while a few national level policies were downloaded from official websites. The list of policy documents was validated and updated by collaborating government officials. The documents were assessed for degree of gender integration and how they characterized men and women. Gender is referenced throughout the document but without any clear implementation plan.
Gender is mentioned throughout the document, with a clear implementation strategy but lacking allocation of financial resources. Gender is mentioned throughout the document, with a clear implementation strategy and allocation of some financial resources. Documents were assigned grade 5 if they allocated any amount of financial resources to gender, that is, the amount allocated was not considered a criterion for grading. For Uganda, three sub-counties were randomly selected from each of the districts from which more budget documents of the same financial years were obtained for analysis.
In the analysis, the gender budget was aggregated from all sectors and reflected as a proportion of the overall district budget. We also scrutinized the specific gender activities to which a budget was committed and calculated the proportion of the gender budget spent on those activities. In Tanzania, three levels of budget predictions were recorded by districts; forward budget estimates, which show future projections for two subsequent years, and which were revised each time an annual budget was developed.
Annual budget estimates show a final budget developed for the next year, approved by the district leadership while the actual expenditure shows a proportion of the approved budget that was committed. In Uganda, both districts and sub-counties recorded estimated and actual budgets each year. The latter was used to calculate the proportions of the gender budget committed. The results from both gender mainstreaming and budget analysis were presented to district officials through participatory workshops.
Workshop participants helped to i corroborate the findings of the desk reviews, ii verify policy and budget documents used for sub-national level analysis, iii explain inconsistencies in the budgets and discuss context specific provisions and constraints for gender mainstreaming and budgeting, and iv identify strategies to improve gender responsiveness.
Policymaking and implementation processes happen in interlinked phases across governance levels.
World Bank Group | Agriculture & Rural Development | Agribusiness Policy Inventory and Analysis
The results presented highlight mainly differences between study countries and across governance levels. Most of the sampled district documents, and all documents sampled from the wards, were gender blind. The results suggest that in Tanzania gender is better integrated in national than in district policies while at the ward level, gender does not seem to be integrated in development plans.
Thus, national level gender mainstreaming efforts are not replicated at lower levels. Does not legislate ownership of land between spouses; inheritance of land is governed by custom and tradition. Recognizes women as key players in natural resource management; acknowledges the need of addressing structural causes of inequality.
Gender in climate change, agriculture, and natural resource policies: insights from East Africa
Unclear strategies to address structural causes of gender inequality; except sections 43 and 44, all other policy sections are gender blind. Quota system limits the legally binding gender issues that the NEP claims need to be addressed.
Proposed actions and strategies for the different fisheries sub-sectors are gender blind; relegates promoting gender to the NGO sector. Recognizes the need to design gender-sensitive extension forestry programs and the inclusion of women in forestry activities and decision-making processes.
The role of men in forestry management is not acknowledged; relegates promoting gender and women empowerment to the NGO sector. Gender equality is a specific target, gender adequately mainstreamed; emphasizes needs of youth. Lack of attention to structural constraints and their relation to gender inequalities in the water sector. Promotes gender equitable land tenure governance. Lack strategies for gender equitable land tenure governance; relegates gender to the gender ministry; roles of other ministries not clear.
Acknowledges a higher vulnerability of women and children to climate change e. The proposed actions do not address identified gender constraints; gender responsiveness in climate change adaptation is not prioritized. Acknowledges gender-differentiated vulnerabilities to climate change.
Proposes strategies for gender integration of gender in programs and activities. Presents a thematic area focused on gender; acknowledges the importance of indigenous and cultural beliefs. Does not include any gender output or outcome indicators in the monitoring and evaluation plan for the strategy. Acknowledges importance of equal decision-making, access to resources and knowledge; highlights roles of key ministries and institutions for gender mainstreaming.
Lacks a clear strategy for addressing gender issues. Lack strategies for integrating gender in sectoral policies, plans and programs, and gender-sensitive CC adaptation interventions. Presents gender as a key cross-cutting adaptation issue; recognizes the need for gender responsiveness of climate change adaptation options for water resources management.
Gender is in the cross-cutting issues section; no clear indication of the relevance of gender in the different aspects of water resources management. Lack of a plan that articulates how the policy will engage with other sectors to implement its gender-inclusive approach. Gender mainstreaming is a key strategy in addressing CC; promotes participation of men and women; recommends that gender and CC issues be integrated in education curriculum and training programs.
No action plan is provided to implement gender activities; no specific budget for gender activities. Mentions to achieve equity in agricultural growth through ensuring gender equity in implementing agricultural interventions.
Selected issues in agricultural policy analysis with special reference to East Africa /
Lacks a plan on how gender will be integrated in policy interventions; does not consider gender structural barriers. Gender should be integrated in the environment management process. Not clear how the sector proposes to work with MGLSD; gender considerations not budgeted for and not part of the objectives to achieve in financial year — Lacks a gender integration strategy, action plan, and budget to operationalize gender integration; does not indicate actors and roles.